IRCT's country factsheets are advocacy tools developed in collaboration with IRCT members in the respective countries. The factsheets cover essential information on torture including victims' and perpetrators' profiles, the availability of rehabilitation services, the applicable legal framework, as well as key recommendations, priorities and concerns.
Developed in collaboration with the Albanian Rehabilitation Centre for Trauma and Torture (ARCT)
Despite positive efforts, Albania continues to struggle with the national enforcement of its international commitments to anti-torture conventions. The Albanian criminal justice system fails to implement or to correctly interpret the Article 1 of the United Nations Convention Against Torture (UNCAT), and the courts never apply Article 86 of the Albanian Criminal Code on Torture, which stipulates that any act of torture is punishable by five to ten years in prison. Furthermore, the country suffers from an inherited culture of impunity due to the damage caused by the previous communist regime.
Torture in Albania (Last updated: June 2014)
Developed in collaboration with Institute for Research and Therapy of Torture Sequels and State Violence (ITEI)
Torture continues to be used as a means of conducting investigations and as a form of intimidation against civil society by the police and armed forces in Bolivia. There is no state policy for the eradication of torture and no state official has been convicted for committing torture.
Torture in Bolivia (Last updated: October 2014)
Developed in collaboration with the Centre for Mental Health and Human Rights (CINTRAS)
The general situation of torture and rehabilitation in Chile is characterised by poor public policies on matters of prevention, access to justice, the right to full reparation and guarantees of non-repetition. Impunity for past and current violations persists and those seeking access to the truth are silenced. Social protest is criminalised.
Torture in Chile (Last updated: August 2014)
Developed in collaboration with the Rehabilitation Center for Victims of Torture in Ethiopia (RCVTE)
Torture and ill-treatment of prisoners are widespread in Ethiopia, particularly during interrogation in pre-trial police detention. The fight against torture fails at all stages.
Torture in Ethiopia (Last updated: October 2014)
Developed in collaboration with the Treatment and Rehabilitation Center for Victims of Torture (TRC) and the Public Committee against Torture in Israel (PCATI)
While torture was widely and indiscriminately used against Palestinians in the 1980s and 1990s, the turn of the century brought about a dramatic decline of reported physical torture methods and the apparent elimination of some commonly used methods of interrogation, following the 1999 landmark ruling by the Israeli High Court of Justice (HCJ). On the other hand, the ongoing creation and development by state mechanisms of legal structures make it possible for “enhanced” interrogation methods to take place. Torture is still used routinely and systematically against ‘security’ prisoners, with the state’s knowledge and agreement.
Torture in Israel (Last updated: June 2015)
Developed in collaboration with the Collective Against Torture and Impunity (CCTI)
Torture is systematically practised by the Mexican government, coupled with acts of arbitrary detention, forced disappearances and extrajudicial executions. It remains a common method in the fight against drug trafficking and the criminalisation of social protest.
Torture in Mexico (Last updated: July 2014)
Developed in collaboration with the Medical Rehabilitation Centre for Torture Victims (RCTV Memoria)
Torture is still used in Moldova, as well as in the Transnistrian region, despite increasing government efforts to crackdown on the perpetrators of torture. While the number of reported torture acts has decreased throughout the years, it is estimated that the number of instances remains higher than reported due to lack of trust in the judicial system.
Torture in Moldova (Last updated: June 2014)
Developed in collaboration with the Struggle for Change (SACH)
Torture in Pakistan is increasingly common throughout the country and takes different forms in different circumstances. Reasons for the infliction of torture include to obtain a confession, information, or as punishment with the purpose of causing mental and physical harm. The fight against torture fails victims in the areas of prevention, rehabilitation and in access to justice.
Torture in Pakistan (Last updated: September 2014)
Developed in collaboration with the Psychosocial Care Centre (CAPS)
Torture in Peru was systematic and occurred frequently in locations where the emergency services were based during the country’s years of internal armed conflict (1980-2000). Today torture continues and the fight against torture in the country suffers from significant deficiencies in all areas: prevention; access to justice; and rehabilitation. The inadequate definition of torture in national law, which is not in line with United Nations Convention Against Torture (UNCAT), leads to victims facing difficulties in accessing legal help. Compounding this is a lack of independence of the prosecution and judiciary, leading to impunity.
Torture in Peru (Last updated: July 2014)
The Russian Federation
Developed in collaboration with the Interregional Non-governmental Organization “Committee Against Torture” (INGO CAT)
The inadequate definition of torture in national law, which is not in line with United Nations Convention Against Torture (UNCAT), leads to victims facing difficulties in accessing legal help. Compounding this is a lack of independence of the prosecution and judiciary, leading to impunity. There are no state programs of rehabilitation for victims of torture and there is no definition of a torture victim.
Torture in the Russian Federation (Last updated: June 2014)
Developed in collaboration with SOHRAM-CASRA (Centre for social Action, Rehabilitation and Readjustment for Victims of Torture), TOHAV (Foundation for Social and Legal Studies) and TIHV/HRFT (Human Rights Foundation Turkey)
Torture and ill-treatment remains a systematic problem in Turkey. The occurrence of torture and other forms of ill-treatment has increased in recent years alongside regressive legal amendments and the changed practices and attitudes of State authorities.
Torture in Turkey (Last updated: August 2014)
Developed in collaboration with Red de Apoyo por la Justicia y la Paz
Torture is a common practice in Venezuela among law enforcement agents as well as within the penal system. It has become an institutionalized practice as a result of an authoritarian policing model which legitimises law enforcement through physical punishment.
Torture in Venezuela (Last updated: October 2014)