International medical instruments
The World Medical Association and other medical and health organisations have issued resolutions, declarations and guidelines to address the behaviour of their medical corps in relation to torture and its prevention.
The World Medical Association (WMA)
The Declaration of Tokyo
Guidelines for Physicians Concerning Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in Relation to Detention and Imprisonment, Adopted by the 29th World Medical Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975, and editorially revised at the 170th Council Session, Divonne-les-Bains, France, May 2005 and the 173rd Council Session, Divonne-les-Bains, France, May 2006
The Declaration of Hamburg
World Medical Association Declaration Concerning Support for Medical Doctors Refusing to Participate in, or to Condone, the Use of Torture or Other Forms of Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment, Adopted by the 49th WMA General Assembly Hamburg, Germany, November 1997
Resolution on the Responsibility of Physicians in the denunciation of Acts of Torture or Cruel or Inhuman or Degrading Treatment of which they are aware
Adopted by the WMA General Assembly, Helsinki 2003, amended by the WMA General Assembly, Copenhagen 2007
The World Medical Association Council Resolution on Prohibition of Physician Participation in Torture
Adopted by the WMA 182nd Council Session, Tel Aviv, May 2009
The World Psychiatric Organisation
Guidelines concerning specific situations
The World Psychiatric Association Ethics Committee’s recognises the need to develop a number of specific guidelines on a number of specific situations. The General Assembly in Madrid, Spain, on August 25, 1996 approved amongst others the following guidelines on the issue of torture: "Torture: Psychiatrists shall not take part in any process of mental or physical torture, even when authorities attempt to force their involvement in such acts".
International Council of Nurses
Nurses’ Role in the Care of Detainees and Prisoners, Position Statement
Adopted in 1998, Revised in 2006 (Replaces previous ICN Position: “The Nurse’s Role in the Care of Detainees and Prisoners”, adopted 1975).
Nurses and Human Rights, Position Statement
Adopted in 1998, revised in 2006, (replaces previous ICN Position: “The Nurse’s Role in Safeguarding Human Rights”, adopted 1983, updated 1993).
Torture, Death Penalty and Participation by Nurses in Executions, Position Statement
Adopted in 1998, Revised in 2003 and 2006, (Replaces previous ICN Positions “Nurses and Torture”, adopted 1989 and “Death penalty and participation by nurses in execution” adopted 1989).
The World Confederation for Physical Therapy
Declaration of Principle on Torture
First adopted at the 13th General Meeting of WCPT June 1995. Revised and re-approved at the 16th General Meeting of WCPT June 2007
American Psychiatric Association
Psychiatric Participation in Interrogation of Detainees, Position Statement
Approved by the Board of Trustees, May 2006, and approved by the Assembly of District Branches, May 2006
American Psychological Association
Amendment to the Reaffirmation of the American Psychological Association Position Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and Its Application to Individuals Defined in the United States Code as "Enemy Combatants"
Resolution Adopted by APA on February 22, 2008
Reaffirmation of the American Psychological Association Position Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and Its Application to Individuals Defined in the United States Code as “Enemy Combatants”
Resolution Adopted by APA on August 19, 2007
Joint Statement with the American Psychiatric Association Condemning Torture
APA joint statement with the American Psychiatric Association condemning torture, 1985.